Immunoassays are nowadays a crucial tool for diagnostics and drug development. However, they often involve time-consuming procedures and need at least two antibodies in charge of the capture and detection processes, respectively. This study reports a nanocomposite based on graphene oxide-coated nanopaper (GONAP) facilitating an advantageous immunosensing platform using a single antibody and without the need for washing steps. The hydrophilic, porous, and photoluminescence-quenching character of GONAP allows for the adsorption and quenching of photoluminescent quantum dots nanocrystals complexed with antibodies (Ab-QDs), enabling a ready-to-use immunosensing platform. The photoluminescence is recovered upon immunocomplex (antibody-antigen) formation which embraces a series of interactions (hydrogen bonding, electrostatic, hydrophobic, and Van der Waals interactions) that trigger desorption of the antigen-Ab-QD complex from GONAP surface. However, the antigen is then attached onto the GONAP surface by electrostatic interactions leading to a spacer (greater than ≈20 nm) between Ab-QDs and GONAP and thus hindering nonradiative energy transfer. It is demonstrated that this simple—yet highly sensitive—platform represents a virtually universal immunosensing approach by using small-sized and big-sized targets as model analytes, those are, human-IgG protein and Escherichia coli bacteria. In addition, the assay is proved effective in real matrices analysis, including human serum, poultry meat, and river water. GONAP opens the way to conceptually new paper-based devices for immunosensing, which are amenable to point of care applications and automated diagnostics.